Author names in bold type are Forbes Lab folks


Hippee AC, Beer MA, Norrbom AL, Forbes AA. 2024. Stronger interspecific sexual differences may be favored when females search for mates in the presence of congeners. Current Research in Insect Science. Accepted.

Ward AKG, Zhang YM, Brown GE, Hippee AC, Prior KM, Rollins S, Sierra N, Sheikh SI, Tribull CM, Forbes AA. 2024. Speciation in kleptoparasites of oak gall wasps often correlates with shifts into new tree habitats, tree organs, and gall morphospace. Evolution. link.

  • Preprint: bioRxiv. link.


[PREPRINT] Shah A, Hamant E, Rubalcaba J, Larkin, B, Forbes A, Woods, A. 2023. Contrasting effects of climate warming on host-parasitoid interactions: insights from Rocky Mountain aspen leaf miners and their parasitoids. Authorea. link.

Prior KM, Jones DG, Meadley-Dunphy SA, Lee S, Milks AK, Daughton S, Forbes AA, Powell THQ. 2023. Host-enemy interactions provide limited biotic resistance for a range-expanding species via reduced apparent competition. Diversity and Distributions. 29:1355-1370. link.

  • Preprint: bioRxiv. link.

Dunn PO & 54 authors (incl. Forbes AA, Weinberger M) 2023. Extensive regional variation in the phenology of insects and their response to temperature across North America. Ecology. 104:e4036. link.


[PREPRINT] Hippee AC, Beer MA, Norrbom AL, Forbes AA. 2022. Stronger sexual dimorphism in fruit flies may be favored when congeners are present and females actively search for mates. bioRxivlink

Ward AKG, Bagley RK, Egan SP, Hood GR, Ott JR, Prior KM, Sheikh SI, Weinersmith KL, Zhang L, Zhang YM, Forbes AA. 2022. Speciation in Nearctic oak gall wasps is frequently correlated with changes in host plant, host organ, or both. Evolution 76:1849-1867. link.

  • Preprint: bioRxiv. link.

Ward AKG, Busbee RW, Chen RA, Davis CK, Driscoe AL, Egan SP, Goldberg BAR, Hood GR, Jones D, Kranz AJ, Meadley-Dunphy SA, Milks AK, Ott JR, Prior KM, Sheikh SI, Shzu S-A, Weinersmith KL, Zhang L, Zhang YM, Forbes AA. 2022. The arthropod associates of 155 North American cynipid oak galls. Zoological Studies. 61:57. link.

  • Preprint: bioRxiv. link.

Zhang YM, Sheikh SI, Ward AKG, Forbes AA, Prior K, Stone GN, Gates M, Egan S, Zhang LN, Davis CK, Weinersmith K, Melika G , Lucky A. 2022. Delimiting the cryptic diversity and host preferences of Sycophila parasitoid wasps associated with oak galls using phylogenomic data. Molecular Ecology 31:4417-4433. link.

  • Preprint: bioRxiv. link.

Sheikh SI, Ward AKG, Zhang YM, Davis CK, Zhang L, Egan SP, Forbes AA . 2022. Ormyrus labotus Walker (Hymenoptera: Ormyridae): another generalist that should not be a generalist is not a generalist. Insect Systematics and Diversity. 8:1-14. link

Yee WL, Goughner RB, Forbes AA, Milnes JM, Feder JL. 2022. Sensitivities to chill durations and no-chill temperatures regulating eclosion responses differ between Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its braconid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology. 51: 440-450. link

Brandão-Dias PFP, Zhang YM, Pirro S, Vinson CC, Weinersmith KL, Ward AKG, Forbes AA, Egan SP. 2022. Describing biodiversity in the genomics era: A new species of Nearctic Cynipidae gall wasp and its genome. Systematic Entomology. 47: 94-112. link


Hippee AC, Beer MA, Bagley RK, Condon MA, Kitchen A, Lisowski EA, Norrbom AL, Forbes AA. 2021. Host shifting and host sharing in a genus of specialist flies diversifying alongside their sunflower hosts. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 34:364-379. link.

Yee, WL, Forbes AA, Feder JL. 2021. Contrast in Post-Chill Eclosion Time Strategies Between Two Specialist Braconid Wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Attacking Rhagoletis Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western North America. Environmental Entomology. 50: 1173-1186 link.


Ward AKG, Sheikh SI, Forbes AA. 2020. Diversity, host ranges, and potential drivers of speciation among the inquiline enemies of oak gall wasps. Insect Systematics and Diversity. 4:3. link

Ericson HC, Forbes AA. 2020. Description of the new species Coptera tonic (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae), a pupal parasitoid of Rhagoletis juniperina Marcovitch (Diptera:Tephritidae), and revised partial keys to Neartic Coptera Say. Zookeys. 985:49-60. link

Weinersmith KL, Forbes AA, Ward AKG, Brandão-Dias PFP, Zhang YM, Egan SP. 2020. Arthropod community associated with the asexual generation of Bassettia pallida Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 113:373-388. link

Yee, WL, Forbes AA, Feder JL. 2020. Eclosion and adult longevity traits of Rhagoletis tabellaria (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Utetes tabellariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the laboratory. The Canadian Entomologist. 152:145-158. link.

[PREPRINT] Tvedte ES, Ward AC, Trendle B, Forbes AA, Logsdon JM. 2020. Genome evolution in a putatively asexual wasp. bioRxiv. link.

[PREPRINT] DeLong-Duhon SG, Bagley RK, Forbes AA. 2020. DNA, Morphology, and Ecology Resurrect Previously Synonymized Species of North American Stereum and Suggest Extensive Undescribed Global Diversity. bioRxiv. link.


Tvedte E, Walden KKO, McElroy KE, Werren J, Forbes AA, Hood G, Logsdon JM, Feder JL, Robertson HM. 2019. Genome of the parasitoid wasp Diachasma alloeum, an emerging model for ecological speciation and transitions to asexual reproduction. Genome Biology and Evolution 11:2767-2773. link.

Ward AKJ, Khodor OS, Egan SP, Weinersmith, KL, Forbes AA. A keeper of many crypts: a behaviour-manipulating parasite attacks a taxonomically diverse array of oak gall wasp species. Biology Letters 15: 20190428. link.

Tvedte ES, Logsdon JM, Forbes AA. 2019. Sex loss in insects: causes of asexuality and consequences for genomes. Current Opinion in Insect Science. 31:77-83. link

Lang C, Forbes AA. 2019. Big Ideas: the role of interdisciplinary teaching at a research university. In: Pradarelli SJ, As Far as the Eye can See: the Promises and Perils of Research and Scholarship in the Twenty-First Century. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, IA.


Forbes AA, Bagley RK, Beer M, Hippee AC, Widmayer HA. 2018. Quantifying the unquantifiable: why Hymenoptera - not Coleoptera - is the most speciose animal order. BMC Ecology. 18:21. link

Winkler IS, Scheffer SJ, Lewis MJ, Ottens KJ, Rasmussen AP, Gomes-Costa GA, Santialln LMH, Condon MA, Forbes AA. 2018. Anatomy of a neotropical insect radiation. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 18:30. link

Hendrix SD, Forbes AA, MacDougall CED. 2018. Variation in the phylogenetic diversity of wild bees at produce farms and prairies. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 259:168-173. link


Tvedte ES, Forbes AA, Logsdon JM. 2017. Retention of core meiotic genes across diverse Hymenoptera. Journal of Heredity. 108:791-806. link

Forbes AA, Devine SN, Hippee AC, Tvedte ES, Ward AKJ, Widmayer HA, Wilson CJ. 2017. Revisiting the particular role of host shifts in initiating insect speciation. Evolution 71:1126-1137. link

Ottens K, Winkler IS, Lewis ML, Scheffer SJ, Gomes-Costa GA, Condon MA, Forbes AA. 2017. Genetic differentiation associated with host plants and geography among six widespread species of South American Blepharoneura fruit flies (Tephritidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30:696-710. link

Weinersmith KL, Liu S, Forbes AA, Egan SP. 2017. Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behavior of its parasite host. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 284:20162365 link

Egan SP, Weinersmith KL, Liu S, Ridenbaugh RD, Zhang YM, Forbes AA. 2017. Description of a new species of Euderus Haliday from the southeastern United States (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae): the crypt-keeper wasp. Zookeys 645:37-49. Link.


Hippee AC, Elnes ME, Armenta JS, Condon MA, Forbes AA. 2016. Divergence before the host shift? Prezygotic reproductive isolation among three varieties of a specialist fly on a single host plant. Ecological Entomology 41:389-399. link

Hamerlinck G, Hulbert D, Hood GR, Smith JJ, Forbes AA. 2016. Histories of host shifts and cospeciation among free-living parasitoids of Rhagoletis flies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 29:1766-1779. link

Hamerlinck G, Lemoine NP, Hood G R, Abbott KC, Forbes AA. 2016. Meek mothers with powerful daughters: effects of novel host environments and small trait differences on parasitoid competition. Oikos. 125: 1516-1527. link

Forbes AA, Hood G R, Hall M.C., Lund J., Izen R., Egan SP, Ott J.R. 2016. Parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, and inquilines associated with the sexual and asexual generations of the gall former, Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). The Annals of the Entomological Society of America 109:49-63. link


Yee WL, Goughnour RB, Hood GR, Forbes AA, Feder JL. 2015. Chilling and host plant / site-associated eclosion times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid. Environmental Entomology 44:1029-1042. link

Hood GR, Forbes AA, Powell THQ, Egan SP, Hamerlinck G, Smith JJ, Feder JL.  2015.  Sequential Divergence and the Multiplicative Origin of Community Diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 112:E5980–E5989. link

Media: Gizmodo, I F-ing Love Science


Powell THQ, Forbes AA, Hood G.R., Feder J.L.  2014.  Ecological adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry: genetic and phenotypic evidence for native host races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Molecular Ecology. 23:688-704. link

Condon MA, Scheffer S.J., Lewis M., Wharton R.A., Adams D.C., Forbes AA. 2014. Lethal interactions between parasites and prey increase niche diversity in a tropical community. Science. 343:1240-1244. link

Media: National GeographicPopular Mechanics, I F-ing Love Science

Nelson AE, Forbes AA. 2014. Urban land use decouples plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions at multiple spatial scales. PLOS ONE. 9(7):e102127. link


Forbes AA, Funk DJ.  2013.  Aspects of the natural history of Neochlamisus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) II: characterization of parasitoid guilds from different plant hosts. The Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 106:818-831. link

Forbes AAKelly PH, Middleton KA, Condon MA.  2013.  Genetically differentiated races and speciation-with-gene-flow in the sunflower maggot, Strauzia longipennisEvolutionary Ecology. 27:1017-1032. link

Forbes AA, Rice LA, Stewart NB, Yee WL, Neiman M.  2013.  Niche differentiation and colonization of a novel environment by an asexual parasitic wasp. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 26:1330-1340. link


Forbes AA, Satar S, Hamerlinck G, Nelson AE, Smith JJ.  2012.  DNA Barcodes and targeted sampling methods identify a new species and cryptic patterns of host specialization among North American Coptera (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).The Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 105:608-612. link

Feder JL, Egan SP, Forbes AA. 2012. Ecological Adaptation and Speciation: The Evolutionary Significance of Habitat Avoidance as a Postzygotic Reproductive Barrier to Gene Flow. International Journal of Ecology. 2012:15 pages. link


Forbes publications before University of Iowa:


Rosenheim JA, Parsa S, Forbes AA, Krimmel WA, Law YH, Segoli M, Segoli M, Sivakoff FJ, Zaviezo T, Gross K. 2011. Ecoinformatics for integrated pest management: expanding the applied insect ecologist's tool-kit. Journal of Economic Entomology. 104:331-342.

Forbes AA, Rosenheim JA.  2011.  Plant responses to insect herbivore damage are modulated by phosphorus nutrition. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 139:242-249.


Forbes AA, Krimmel WA.  2010.  Evolution is the change in inherited traits of a population through successive generations. Nature Education Knowledge. 1:6.

Forbes AA, Hood G R, Feder JL.  2010.  Geographic and ecological overlap of parasitoid wasps associated with the Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex. The Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 103:903-915.

Feder JL, Forbes AA.  2010.  Sequential speciation and the diversity of parasitic insects. Ecological Entomology. 35:67-76.

Forbes AA, Pelz-Stelinski KS, Isaacs R.  2010.  Transfer of life history phenology from mothers to progeny in a solitary univoltine parasitoid. Physiological Entomology. 35:192-195.


Hoham RW, Frey FM, Berman JD, Ryba JB, Duncan JE, Forbes AA, Goodridge BM, Miller PR.  2009.  The effects of irradiance level, photoperiod, and cell density on sexual reproduction in the green snow alga, Chloromonas chenangoensis (Chlorophyta: Vovocales), from upstate New York. Nova Hedwigia. 89:1-16.

Rull J, Wharton R, Feder JL, Guillen L, Sivinski J, Forbes AA, Aluja M.  2009.  Latitudinal variation in parasitoid guild composition and parasitism rates of North American hawthorn infesting RhagoletisEnvironmental Entomology. 38:588-599.

Forbes AA, Stelinski LL, Powell THQ, Smith JJ, Feder JL.  2009.  Sequential sympatric speciation across trophic levels. Science. 323:776-779.

Recommended by Faculty of 1000 (link)


Feder JL, Forbes AA.  2008.  Host fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host-race formation. In: K. Tilmon (ed.) Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation -- The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects.

Forbes AA, Powell THQ, Noor MAF, Feder JL.  2008.  Polymorphic microsatellite loci for Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Molecular Ecology Resources. 8:373-376.

Xie X, Michel AP, Schwarz D, Rull J, Velez S, Forbes AA, Aluja M, Feder JL.  2008.  Radiation and divergence in the Rhagoletis pomonella species group: inferences from DNA sequence data. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 21(3):900-913.


Feder JL, Forbes AA.  2007.  Habitat avoidance and speciation for phytophagous specialists. Functional Ecology. 21:585-597.

Xie X, Rull J, Michel AP, Velez S, Forbes AA, Lobo NF, Aluja M, Feder JL.  2007.  Hawthorn-infesting populations of Rhagoletis pomonella in Mexico and speciation mode plurality. Evolution. 61:1091-1105.

Forbes AA, Powell THQ, Lobo NF, Feder JL.  2007.  Resolving a DNA sequencing artifact associated with Topoisomerase I generated clones in the plasmid pCR®2.1. Biotechniques. 42:458-462.


Forbes AA, Feder JL.  2006.  Divergent preferences of Rhagoletis pomonella host races for olfactory and visual fruit cues. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 119:121-127.


Dambroski HR, Linn C, Berlocher S, Forbes AA, Roelofs W, Feder JL.  2005.  The genetic basis for fruit odor discrimination in Rhagoletis flies and its significance for sympatric host shifts. Evolution. 59:1953-1964.

Forbes AA, Fisher J, Feder JL.  2005.  Habitat avoidance: overlooking an important aspect of host specific mating and sympatric speciation? Evolution. 59:1552-1559.

Feder JL, Xie X, Rull J, Velez S, Forbes AA, Leung B, Dambroski HR, Filchak KE, Aluja M.  2005.  Mayr, Dobzhansky, and Bush and the complexities of sympatric speciation in RhagoletisThe Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102:6573-6580.

Connors MJ, Schauber EM, Forbes AA, Goodwin BJ, Jones CG, Ostfeld RS.  2005.  Using track plates to quantify spatial heterogeneity in risk to prey of white-footed mice. Journal of Mammalogy. 86:991-996.